- Mixing of raw materials: the main material is livestock manure, the ingredients (straw, waste tobacco, planting and processing waste, etc.) are crushed, organic and biological bacterial fertilizers are added, and some phosphate rock powder, potassium ore powder, and phosphate rock can be appropriately added Try to purchase medium-grade phosphate rock (total phosphorus content> 18%). The amount of phosphate rock powder added to the organic fertilizer raw materials needs to consider the pH of the raw materials. More phosphate rock powder can be added to the weakly acidic raw materials, and natural potassium magnesium sulfate fertilizers should be less added to the neutral and slightly alkaline raw materials to adjust the nutrients and carbon of the materials. Nitrogen ratio, carbon to phosphorus ratio, pH value, etc. After treatment, the moisture content of the raw materials is controlled at 60%-65%, and the C/N ratio is 20-30. The production of bio-organic fertilizer needs to add beneficial bacteria and functional bacteria, and it needs to be added when the temperature of the material is less than 40 degrees after the high temperature period of fermentation. The paddle-type compost turning machine can control the materials in the tank in sections, which is convenient for operation, and makes full use of the equipment’s ingredient mixing function, fermentation mixing function, and mixing and drying function to simplify the production process. This process is designed as an integrated workshop for ingredient mixing, fermentation, aging (decomposition), and drying to reduce multiple handling of materials.
Note: In the composition of raw materials before composting, the carbon-nitrogen ratio and moisture of the raw materials are mainly considered, followed by particle size and pH: the reasonable range of carbon-nitrogen ratio: 20:1-40:1, the best range: 25:1- 30:1; reasonable range of moisture content: 40%-65%, optimal range: 50%-60%; reasonable range of particle size: 0.32cm-1.27cm, depending on materials, piles and weather; reasonable pH Range: 5.5-9.0, best range: 6.5-8.0.
- Fermentation: Fermentation of organic fertilizer raw materials adopts aerobic fermentation process, adopts trough type fermentation turning machine, and blades (rotating tooth type, positive and reverse) to cut and throw materials, which can make organic materials move backward during turning. Each turn moves backward about 2.2 meters. The turning and throwing machine has a mixing function and can be used as a mixer. During the batching, the layered materials can be mixed evenly and then enter the fermentation area (or fermentation period), which can greatly save the investment in raw material pre-mixing equipment and material loading and unloading transportation and pre-mixing work Mix the broiler manure, cassava residue and 0.15% organic material decomposing agent as evenly as possible, stack 60-80 cm high stacks, turn the stacks once every 2-3 days with a turning machine, and control the temperature during fermentation. Below 70°C, the odorless effect is generally achieved in about 20 days, that is, the fermentation is completely decomposed.
Note: During the composting process, the temperature change is mainly controlled. The complete composting process consists of four stages: low temperature, medium temperature, high temperature and cooling. The compost temperature is generally maintained at 50-60°C, and can reach 70-80°C at the highest point. The process of gradually increasing the temperature of the compost is a process of harmless composting (the temperature of the compost is maintained between 45℃-65℃ for 10 days, and pathogenic bacteria, insect eggs and grass seeds can be killed). When the compost temperature rises above 60℃, keep it for 48 hours to start turning the pile, but when the compost temperature rises above 70℃, turn the pile immediately. Make sure to turn the pile evenly and thoroughly. Try to turn the bottom material to the middle and upper part to fully decompose. The frequency of turning depends on the maturity of the organic fertilizer. The pH is controlled in the fertilizer. In the initial stage of composting, organic acid is generated due to the decomposition of organic matter. decline. At this time, if the acidity is too high (pH<5.3), lime or plant ash can be added at 2%-3% of the weight of the raw materials to neutralize the acidity, destroy the wax on the surface of the organic materials and accelerate the fermentation; in the later stage of composting, due to the accumulation of ammonia, the pH It will gradually increase. When the pH is greater than 8.5, fresh green manure, grass, etc. can be added to decompose and regenerate organic acids and lower the pH.
- Air-drying and sieving: transport the fermented raw materials to the outdoor drying yard, and after natural drying, ensure that the water content is below 20%, that is, the air-drying is completed, and the air-dried raw materials are crushed through a crusher and then passed through the screen. Sieve to remove impurities.
Note: It is recommended to properly carry out the secondary fermentation in the post-processing of the compost (before air-drying), especially for the raw materials with a large proportion of livestock and poultry manure in the primary fermentation, so as to prevent the finished fertilizer from being applied to the soil and rapid propagation in the secondary fermentation The microorganisms compete for oxygen with the roots of vegetables, resulting in the phenomenon of burning roots and seedlings.
- Inspection and packaging: After the crushed and sieved organic raw materials are inspected (sent for external inspection), they are directly quantitatively packaged, which is the powdery finished organic fertilizer. Granulation by the organic fertilizer granulator is the granular finished organic fertilizer.
Note: Before sending for external inspection, judge whether the finished fertilizer is completely decomposed by the color and smell. The completely decomposed organic finished fertilizer can be applied for external inspection. The incompletely decomposed finished fertilizer needs post-processing (or secondary fermentation). The finished fertilizer that has passed the external inspection can be directly bagged or pelletized and then bagged. The finished fertilizer that does not meet the required nutrient content in the external inspection result needs to be returned to the composting workshop, and high-nutrient content raw materials are added to compost and ferment again.